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Twelve Hijri Months - Islamic Calendar

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The twelve Hijri months are named as follows in Arabic:

  1. Muḥarram (المحرّم meaning "forbidden"), so called because battle was forbidden (haram) during this month. Muharram includes the Day of Ashura.
  2. Ṣafar (صفر meaning "void"), supposedly named thus because pagan Arab houses were empty this time of year while their occupants gathered food.
  3. Rabīʿ I (Rabīʿ al-Awwalربيع الأوّل) meaning "the first spring".
  4. Rabīʿ II (Rabīʿ ath-Thānī ربيع الثاني or Rabīʿ al-Ākhir ربيع الآخر) meaning "the second (or last) spring".
  5. Jumādā I (Jumādā al-Ūlāجمادى الأولى meaning "the first month of parched land"). Often considered the pre-Islamic "summer".
  6. Jumādā II (Jumādā ath-Thāniya جمادى الثانية or Jumādā al-Ākhira جمادى الآخرة) meaning "the second (or last) month of parched land".
  7. Rajab (رجب meaning "respect", "honor"). This is another sacred month in which fighting was traditionally forbidden.
  8. Shaʿbān (شعبان meaning "scattered"). Marked the time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water.
  9. Ramaḍān (رمضان meaning "scorched"). Ramadan is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar. During this time, Muslims must fast from dawn till sunset and should give charity to the poor.
  10. Shawwāl (شوّال meaning "raised"). She-camels normally would be in calf at this time of year.
  11. Dhū al-Qaʿda (ذو القعدة meaning "the one of truce"). Dhu al-Qa'da was another month during which war was banned.
  12. Dhū al-Ḥijja (ذو الحجّة meaning "the one of pilgrimage"). The month in which the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca (the Hajj) occurs.

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